PKPEL takes issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice.
Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action. The author should disclose any prior distribution and/or publication of any portion of the material to the Editor for the Editor’s consideration and ensure that appropriate attribution to the prior distribution and/or publication of the material is included.
On the following pages, you may find information about PKPEL’s Publishing Policies.

5.1 Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement

PKPEL requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement for all articles we publish. PKPEL’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is a licence agreement under which the author retains copyright in the work but grants PKPEL the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than PKPEL. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society.
For information on open access options at PKPEL, please visit the Open Access pages at JPP Authors Guidlines
Frequently Asked Questions:
  1. What is an exclusive licence agreement? With an exclusive licence you retain copyright. Your Contribution is credited as © The Author(s) but you license the control of all rights exclusively to PKPEL or, where relevant, a society or other proprietary publishing partner. This means that all licensing requests including permissions are managed by PKPEL.
  2. Why does PKPEL require an exclusive licence agreement? We seek to bring your Contribution to the widest possible readership. An exclusive licence helps us ensure adequate protection against infringement of copyright protected material through breach of copyright or piracy anywhere in the world. It also ensures that requests by third parties to reprint or reproduce a contribution, or part of it in any format, are handled efficiently in accordance with general policy which encourages dissemination of knowledge inside the framework of copyright.
  3. Who owns the copyright in your Contribution? If you have written your Contribution yourself, or with co–authors, and you have not been commissioned to write the article by someone else (either by a government agency, your employer or any other party) you (and any co–authors) will hold the copyright in your article. If you have written the Contribution in the capacity of your role at work or your contract of employment you may not hold copyright in your Contribution, and you will need to check the relevant box on your Contributor Agreement. Please see below for further information.
  4. What are my rights as author? Please visit Journal Author Archiving Policies and Re-Use.
  5. What are my options for signing and returning my Contributor Agreement? You may sign and return your Contributor Agreement in the following ways: Most PKPEL journals have instituted an online submission and review system known as PKPEL Track. This system will allow you to agree to the terms and conditions of the Journal Publishing Contributor’s Agreement online and will automate the return of your contributor agreement. By e–mail – a scanned hard copy of the Agreement with your signature on it or a digital original copy with your electronic signature are equally acceptable. Traditional hard copy – please sign and return the Agreement to PKPEL. By fax – please sign and fax a copy of the Agreement to PKPEL.
  6. What if I have co–authors contributing to this article? You must ensure that you have your co-authors’ consent to submit the article for publication and that you have the right to sign the Contributor Agreement on their behalf. If they preferred, all authors may sign the agreement. Co-authors may either all sign and return the same copy of the agreement, or each author may sign and return separate copies of the agreement.
  7. What if my employer holds the copyright in my work? To indicate that the rights to your work are owned by your employer, you may check the relevant box on your Contributor Agreement and also have an authorised representative of your employer sign the Contributor Agreement before returning it.
  8. What if I am a government employee? a) If you are a UK, Canadian, Australian or British Commonwealth government employee, you just need to check the regular “work made for hire for employment” box or “Other Government work (not U.S.)”, as applicable to your agreement, and have your manager sign the Contributor Agreement too. b) If you are a US federal employee, please check with your manager, but your work is likely the public domain, so not in copyright and therefore not assignable. Please check the relevant box on the form.
  9. When do I need to submit my signed Contributor Agreement? You will receive a Contributor Agreement upon acceptance of your article which should be signed and returned as soon as possible to prevent any delays in the production process for your article. Without the signed form we will be unable to publish the article.
  10. Why do I need to indemnify the Journal and PKPEL? It is standard for all PKPEL contributors to make certain warranties to the Journal and PKPEL Publishing. This is simply because as the author of the article you are the only person who can assure us of the information stated in the warranties, including that the article we are publishing is your own work, and does not infringe the rights of anyone else. We have taken care to ensure the warranties are limited to statements that are reasonably within your control as author.
  11. What is the Declaration of Conflicting Interests? A Declaration of Conflicting Interests policy refers to a formal policy a journal may have to require a conflict of interest statement or conflict of interest disclosure from a submitting or publishing author.
  12. Does the Contributor Agreement enable me to comply with particular funder and institutional mandates including the NIH? A – Yes, PKPEL Contributor Agreements allow all authors to publish in full compliance with most currently known funding body and institutional open access archiving mandates. Exceptions are covered by the PKPEL Choice scheme. Please also refer to your rights as author.
  13. What if my employer or research funding body requires I submit an addendum to my Contributor Agreement? If you are required to submit an addendum by your employer or research funding body, please make your request via email (ID) or provide a copy of the addendum to the Production Editor (US), indicating the name of the journal, the title of your paper and the details of the request.
  14. Can I publish my article open access in the PKPEL Choice Scheme? PKPEL offers optional, funded open access in a number of journals. To view a current list, link to the further information below. For these journals, you will be invited to select this option on acceptance of your Contribution. More information is available at PKPEL Choice FAQ. PKPEL will publish your article under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC) which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. Authors required to publish under a CC BY licensing by their funder can publish under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which allows use of the work for commercial purposes.
  15. Do I need to sign a Contributor Agreement if I am publishing my article open access in the PKPEL Choice Scheme? If you are opting to make your contribution open access in a journal eligible for the PKPEL Choice scheme you need to sign a PKPEL Choice Publishing Agreement. See PKPEL Choice for more information.

5.2 Copyright and Permissions

FAQs Permissions
What if I want to re–use material from another source in my article?
PKPEL is sympathetic to the needs of scholars to include other copyright material in their work and PKPEL is happy to provide guidance on this. Responsibility for obtaining permission to use any other copyright material rests with you as the author of the Contribution. If your Contribution includes material which is not your copyright, you are responsible for submitting with your manuscript the written permission from those who control copyright in that material to include it and reproduce it within your Contribution. In most cases this will be the publisher of the work. You are responsible for the payment of any permission fees. If your Contribution does not qualify for a ‘fair dealing’ (UK) or ‘fair use’ (USA) exception (please see below) you will need to clear permission for all third party material you intend to include: direct text extracts, tables, or illustrations that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author along with complete information as to source.
You may be able to benefit from free re-use of a limited amount of material from certain publishers under the ‘STM Permissions Guidelines’ (see below). Where possible, photographs of identifiable persons should be accompanied by signed releases from these people showing informed consent. This is particularly important for children and essential if photographs feature situations where privacy would be expected.
Articles appear in both the print and online versions of the journal and may be translated or archived, and the wording of the permission licence must specify permission in all formats and media for the full legal term of copyright. Failure to get electronic permission rights – or needed releases – will result in the images not being included at all in your article. If you are unsure whether you need to clear permission, please contact your Production Editor. There are some occasions where permission is not required for re–use of material from another source. The most important of these is ‘fair dealing’ (UK) or ‘fair use’ (USA).  If you wish to re-use original material published by PKPEL in the work you are preparing for publication in a PKPEL journal, this re-use may be covered by the STM Permissions Guidelines (see below) but in some cases may require permission from PKPEL. In such instances, Please visit Journals Permissions.
What are the ‘STM Permissions Guidelines’ and how can I use them?
PKPEL is a signatory of the STM permissions guidelines. Despite the name, the STM Permissions Guidelines are not limited to the use of scientific, technical and medical content. Instead, all publications – unless specifically excluded – by the publishers who are signatories to the guidelines are eligible for use under the terms. The guidelines allow signatory publishers (and their authors) to use small amounts of other signatory publishers’ materials without payment of a fee. In some cases – where the publisher has ‘opted out’ of receiving notice – there is no need to request permission. In other cases, an author wishing to use content from another publisher simply cites the guidelines when requesting the material from the other publisher. If requesting permission online, “STM Publisher” may be an option when identifying the journal in which your article will be published. Re-use under the STM Permissions Guidelines will not incur a fee. View further information about STM Permissions Guidelines and the process for providing notification when required.
What is ‘fair dealing’, and what does it cover?
UK law provides that copyright will not be infringed by ‘fair dealing’ but it does not define what ‘fair dealing’ itself means. It has come to be interpreted as referring to the way material is used, as well as the intention of the person using it. However, use of third party material must qualify as fair dealing for a particular purpose. There are a number of these purposes specified in UK law but the most relevant one for us is ‘Fair Dealing for Criticism or Review’.
What constitutes ‘fair dealing for Criticism or Review’?
First of all use of third party material must be ‘Fair’. That means: not systematic and not conflicting with the rights of the copyright holder or affecting their ability to benefit from the work:
There is no set amount of material allowed or forbidden. But the use cannot be systematic or excessive. Do not rely on word counts.
You must always make proper acknowledgment to the original copyright work.
Criticism or review:
The third party material used must be discussed in the context of criticism or review. This is an essential component providing a justification for fair dealing.
There is no legal definition of criticism or review but it’s likely that there would be a fairly liberal interpretation by the Courts.
Mere illustration or ‘window dressing’ is ruled out. A good question to ask is whether your work would stand up if the material was deleted. If so, it is unlikely to be for criticism and review.
This defence can only be used in Indonesia law in conjunction with published works.
Permission is always required if you wish to modify or make changes to the third party material because all authors have moral rights under European law.
If you are in any doubt as to whether or not you can use the material as ‘fair dealing’, you should clear permission, or leave the material out.
Please note that, this is PKPEL’s working view of a relatively untested area of the law.
What is ‘fair use’, and what does it cover?
Fair use is codified as Section 107 of the US Copyright Act and provides an exception to the exclusive rights of the copyright holder under certain limited circumstances. Fair use involves a four factor analysis that includes considering (1) the purpose and nature of the use, (2) the nature of the original material, (3) the amount of the original material being used in relation to the original work as a whole, and (4) the effect the use will have on the market of the original work. Text, photographs, illustrations, and figures are all subject to fair use, but generally the more creative the original work (the nature of the original work), the weaker the basis for a fair use argument. Where the later use is transformative – that is, where the purpose of the use is different than the purpose of the original creation – the fair use argument will be stronger. Only the minimal portion of the original work that is sufficient for the use should be used (e.g., where a 200 word excerpt is adequate for the use, no more than 200 words should be reproduced, photographs should be reproduced in the minimum size that will achieve the purpose). Reproduction of an excerpt for the purpose of commentary, criticism, and discussion may be the basis for a fair use argument, subject to the overall determination under the four-factor analysis.
If you are in any doubt as to whether or not you can use the material as ‘fair use’, you should clear permission, or leave the material out.
Is there any specific wording I should use in my letter requesting permission?
In order to be able to publish your work in the print and online versions of your article we require permission to be granted for worldwide rights to reproduce in all media in all formats. You may use the template permissions letter to request permission.
Is there an audio-visual release form I may use?
If an individual is identifiable in any audio- and/or visual material included in your Contribution, we require permission to be granted in order for PKPEL to publish your Contribution in the journal. You may use the template release form to request permission.
May I post my article online or otherwise distribute it without permission from PKPEL?
Yes, please visit Journal Author Archivng Policies and Re-Use to review your rights as author.
How can I contact the Rights & Permissions department at PKPEL?
Please visit Journals Permissions.
How can I re-use my article?
Please visit Journal Author Archiving Policies and Re-Use.
Other re-use of your article
You may have granted the Proprietor an exclusive licence to your work and retained copyright in your contribution, or you may have transferred copyright in the contribution to the Proprietor.
This helps PKPEL and the Proprietor to ensure adequate protection against infringement of copyright protected material through breach of copyright or piracy anywhere in the world. It also ensures that requests by third parties to reprint or reproduce a contribution, or part of it in any format, are handled efficiently in accordance with our general policy which encourages dissemination of knowledge inside the framework of copyright.
Where practicable, PKPEL advises third parties to inform you of their requests to re-use your material. This does not apply to blanket arrangements covering the journal as a whole. Please keep our mailing list up to date with your institutional or business address changes to help us to do this. Inadvertent failure to inform you will not constitute a material breach of the Contributor Agreement you signed as a condition of publication.
For more information, Please visit Journals Permissions.

5.3 Open Access

FAQs Open Access
For more information on open access options at PKPEL please visit the open access pages.
Author e-prints
PKPEL supports a range of author benefit policies with respect to providing authors with an e-print and the opportunity to purchase off-prints. E-prints are sent out automatically to the corresponding authors of articles published ahead of print and in print issues. A link is provided allowing the author to download the article directly from the PKPEL website and forward the link onto their co-authors. Please refer to the manuscript submission guidelines for the policy of the journal in which you are interested in submitting or publishing your article.
If an author would like to purchase a print copy of the issue in which their article appears, they will receive a 30% discount off the standard single issue price. Please contact Journals Subscriptions.
Corrections & Crossmark Policies
Version of Record and PKPEL Corrections Policy
In an effort to better serve our researchers, librarians, and others in the academic community, PKPEL believes clarity in the publishing record is a critical component of information distribution. Recognizing a published article as a finalized “Version of Record” establishes the expectation that it can be relied upon as accurate, complete, and citable. PKPEL defines this Version of Record as the article paginated in a volume and issue or the initial article publication for open access journals (Open Access journals do not publish any additional versions such as paginated issue/volume versions).
Corrections prior to the Version of Record
Because articles can be read and cited as soon as they are published (including OnlineFirst publication), any changes thereafter could potentially impact those who read and cited the earlier version. PKPEL provides authors with an opportunity to review article proofs prior to publication with the express goal of ensuring accuracy of the content. Publishing an erratum or corrigendum increases the likelihood readers will find out about the change and also explains the specifics of the change.
When an article is published OnlineFirst but not yet published in an issue, limited corrections may be made at the discretion of the journal and PKPEL.
Version of Record
When an article is published in an issue (or an Open Access article is first published), it is considered the Version of Record. PKPEL is committed to preserving the integrity and transparency of the Version of Record. If a significant error is discovered, PKPEL may publish an erratum or corrigendum notice to alert all readers.
PKPEL takes issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism and other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. In the rare cases where a breach of publication ethics or copyright infringement are discovered, PKPEL reserves the right to take appropriate action to correct the academic record, including but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum; publishing an expression of concern linked to the article; retracting the article and publishing an accompanying retraction notice; or removing an article for legal reasons and replacing the removed article with a notice.
PKPEL’s Crossmark Policy
Building upon our commitment of a reliable Version of Record and our Corrections policy, as outlined above, PKPEL also participates in the Crossmark program. This program allows readers to quickly and easily access the status of a piece of published content, including updates, corrections, and retractions, as well as provide valuable article metadata.
On PKPEL Journals you will now see the Crossmark button, as shown below, both on HTML and PDF versions of our articles. Clicking on the button makes a pop-up box appear that shows the reader the current status of the article (for example, up-to-date, updates available, or retracted), as well as also displaying any additional information or metadata PKPEL has supplied to Crossmark.
In addition to applying this to new content going forward, we will also be adding the Crossmark button to content published since 2011.
Learn more about Crossmark, a multi-publisher initiative from Crossref, at

5.4 Declaration of Conflicting Interests Policy

A Declaration of Conflicting Interests policy refers to a formal policy a journal may have to require a conflict of interest statement or conflict of interest disclosure from a submitting or publishing author.
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) states in its Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (2003) that:
‘Conflicts of interest arise when authors, reviewers, or editors have interests that are not fully apparent and that may influence their judgments on what is published. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived.’
Many scholars, researchers and professionals may have potential conflicts of interest, that could have an effect on – or could be seen to – have an effect on their research. As a result, some PKPEL journals require a formal declaration of conflicting interests enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated published article.
A potential conflicting interest might arise from relationships, allegiances or hostilities to particular groups, organizations or interests, which may influence excessively one’s judgments or actions. The issue is particularly sensitive when such interests are private and/or may result in personal gain. Articles will be evaluated fairly and will not necessarily be rejected when any competing interests are declared.  Examples of conflicts of interest might include the following, although it is not an exhaustive list:
  1. Having received fees for consulting.
  2. Having received research funding.
  3. Having been employed by a related company.
  4. Holding stocks or shares in a company which might be affected by the publication of your paper.
  5. Having received funds reimbursing you for attending a related symposia, or talk.
  6. If there are other interests which the reasonable reader might feel has affected your research you may also wish to declare them.
*Please note that it is not expected that details of financial arrangements be disclosed when a competing interest is declared.
Author obligations regarding conflicting interests
In your Journal Publishing Contributor Agreement you will be asked to certify that:
  1. All forms of financial support, including pharmaceutical company support, are acknowledged in your Contribution.
  2. Any commercial or financial involvements that might present an appearance of a conflict of interest related to the
  3. Contribution are disclosed in a covering letter accompanying the Contribution and all such potential conflicts of interest will be discussed with the Editor as to whether disclosure of this information with the published Contribution is to be made in the journal.
  4. That you have not signed an agreement with any sponsor of the research reported in the Contribution that prevents you from publishing both positive and negative results or that forbids you from publishing this research without the prior approval of the sponsor.
  5. That you have checked the manuscript submission guidelines to see whether the journal requires a Declaration of Conflicting Interests and have complied with the requirements specified where such a policy exists.
How do I check the Manuscript Submission Guidelines to see if the journal to which I am submitting or publishing requires a declaration
Please refer to the Manuscript Submission Guidelines on the journals page to check the policy of the PKPEL journal in which you are submitting or publishing to ensure you comply with any specific requirements needed.
Editor obligations regarding conflicting interests
The same obligations equally apply to editors or guest editors writing an editorial that will be published in the journal.
How do I make a declaration?
If you are submitting to or publishing your article in a journal which requires you to make a Declaration of Conflicting Interests, please include such a declaration at the end of your manuscript after any Acknowledgements and prior to the Funding Acknowledgement, Notes (if relevant) and References, under the heading ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interest’. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
*Please note, a Conflict of Interest Statement will not appear in journals that do not require a declaration of conflicting interests. Where a declaration is required the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article.
Additional Information
You may find the following useful resources to refer to for more information on Conflict of Interest policies, existing codes of practices and more general good practice in relation to journal publication ethics:
View the Guidelines published on good publication and the Code of Conduct by the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).
View the guidelines published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
View a Common Standard for Conflict of Interest Disclosure published by Center for Science in the Public Interest.


5.5 Funding Acknowledgements

All research articles should have a funding acknowledgement statement included in the manuscript in the form of a sentence under a separate heading entitled ‘Funding’ directly after your Acknowledgements and Declaration of Conflicting Interests, if applicable, and prior to any Notes and your References. The funding agency should be written out in full, followed by the grant number in square brackets, see following example:
This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number xxx].
Multiple grant numbers should be separated by comma and space. Where the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Thus:
This work was supported by the Trust [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Natural Environment Research Council [grant number zzzz]; and the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number aaaa].
In some cases, research is not funded by a specific project grant, but rather from the block grant and other resources available to a university, college or other research institution. Where no specific funding has been provided for the research we ask that corresponding authors use the following sentence:
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Please include this information under a separate heading entitled ‘Funding’ directly after any Acknowledgements and Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), and prior to any Notes and your References.
Important note: If you have any concerns that the provision of this information may compromise your anonymity dependent on the peer review policy of this journal outlined above, you can withhold this information until you submit your final accepted manuscript.

5.6 Prior Publication

If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a PKPEL journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication:
Abstracts and posters presented at conferences: though authors should inform the Editor and acknowledge the first source of publication. Articles that have been presented at a conference but not published by the conference organizers may also be considered. The author should confirm that they have not granted the conference organizers a licence to the work; if the author retains all the rights in the work the journal editor may consider the article for publication based on the fact that articles presented at a conference are unlikely to be the same or substantially the same version as that being accepted by the journal.
Raw data (i.e. this does not include the arrangement or organisation of data) and clinical trials registries (i.e. without accompanying context): please note that permission may still be required to re-use these materials. Most dissertations and theses posted in institutional archives: if the dissertation being presented for publication is the same or substantially the same as any previously published work, it will not be suitable for a PKPEL journal.
Working papers or versions of the paper posted on a pre-print server: authors should alert the Editor when submitting their paper if they have posted it on a pre-print server.
Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the pre-print server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal.
If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal’s self-archiving policy: PKPEL’s standard self-archiving policy can be found on our JPP Author Guidelines. Please note that individual journals may not accept for consideration papers that have been posted on pre-print servers. Please check the submission guidelines of the journal you are submitting to and confirm with the Editor or Editorial Office directly.
In all cases the author should disclose any prior publication or distribution to the Editor and ensure appropriate attribution to the prior distribution and/or publication of the material.
For advice on how to clear permission for a manuscript you intend to submit for publication in a PKPEL Journal, please visit our Author Guidelines Copyright and Permissions FAQ.